The Scandinavian glacier shaped the diverse Wigry landscape with unique beauty. The time that has passed since the retreat of the glacier is only a brief moment in the face of past geological eras that have left their marks in the deeper layers of sediments and rocks hidden beneath the earth's surface. For over 500 million years, the landscape has changed here many times, and for long periods was the seabed. Sedimentary rocks in the place where the Wigry National Park is now, have a thickness of 500 - 600 meters, lie on a hard crystalline surface. The WPN area is located at an altitude of 125 - 183 meters above sea level. The landscape is varied by moraine hills, i.e. various types of hills, hills and embankments created from rock material embedded by the glacier or displaced under its pressure. The most spectacular in the park are the accumulation resulting from the ripping of the foreground and glacier ground, and then their pushing (folding and overlapping) with the progressive movement of ice masses. The elongated gravel-sandy embankments are oss that formed in crevices under the ice sheet and in the gutters, at the place of the outlet of waters flowing out from under the ice. In the area of Wigry we can encounter entire ozone strings, located along the postglacial gutters: the Wiatrołuża River, along the Czarna Hańcza near the Wysokie Most and the Dark Forest, as well as in the forest between Królówek and Piertaniem. Some hills, often cone-shaped or with a flat top and steep slopes, are called kems. They were formed by layered sands, silts and gravel deposited in crevices and depressions within the ice sheet, dead ice or between adjacent tongues of the glacier. The surface of the plateaus is cut by strings of glacial gutters, which began to form during the ice sheet rise. Currently, they are often filled with lake waters or peatlands formed as a result of "aging" of water reservoirs; some rivers or streams flow. Waters flowing out of the melting ice sheet carried boulders, gravel and sand. Before the glacier front, during its stop, sandy plains called sandras formed. South of Lake Wigry - the vast Augustów Plain was created. The Hierarchy landscape has retained high natural and aesthetic values. The mosaic of forests, lakes, meadows, arable fields and trees in an open, undulating area is a value that must be protected for us and for future generations. Of the many threats to the landscape, urbanization comes first - building up areas previously occupied by fields, meadows and pastures. Buildings are a very durable element of space, which is why every decision granting the right to build a new facility requires prudence. New buildings should be part of the terrain and refer to traditional regional architectural forms. What the Wigry landscape will look like will be determined by legal provisions and local government decisions issued on their basis. The spatial development plans developed for some localities sorted out the issues related to urbanization of these areas for some time - designating the space for development and the architectural form of the new facilities. Landscape protection, which is so important for the national park, will now depend on the consequences of local authorities in achieving a common goal - sustainable development of the region.
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